Manoeuvring of free-surface or underwater vessels has always been a favourite topic within ReFRESCO application. And while the full unsteady full-scale appended and propelled-ship complex manoeuver in a sea-state (current and waves) is still a very expensive exercise with CFD (but possible …), CFD/ReFRESCO can already help in two ways: 1) by calculation of static or imposed simpler manoeuvers where relevant coefficients can be gathered which feed faster simulation tools; 2) by simulating simpler and shorter simulations where parts of the complexity are modelled, for instance with simpler tools or couplings. Also to study the the flow physics of a manoeuvring ship (even for simple manouvers) in confined waters, close to harbours, in small under-water clearance is of extreme importance during the design phase of a ship. In all these fronts ReFRESCO work has been done in the last years. Below, one can see some typical application examples.

Ship (KVLCC2) at different drafts


Manoeuvering coefficients for static rudder angles


Ship (KVLCC2) under rotation

Ship in lock