Several studies have been done with ReFRESCO on submarines, mainly for manoeuvring performance studies, but also for resistance&propulsion analysis, design optimization and effect of free-surface. Several V&V (Verification & Validation) studies have been done within the community and together with other partners in NATO and other working groups comparative workshops. Submarines such as DARPA SUBOFF, BB1, BB2, Jilbert, Dutch Walvis class, but also 2nd world war U-boats have been analyzed using ReFRESCO. Some results from these exercises can be seen below.


Suboff submarine at drift angle


















BB1 submarine design improvement



Three different submarine designs operating at free-surface