1.  Eca, Luis; Klaij, Christiaan; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin; Pereira, Filipe: On code verification of RANS solvers. In: Journal of Computational Physics, 310 , pp. 418439, 2016. (Type: Journal Article  Abstract  Links  BibTeX) @article{2016JCPEcaKlaijVazPereiraHoekstra, title = {On code verification of RANS solvers}, author = {Luis Eca and Christiaan Klaij and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra and Filipe Pereira}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2016jcpecaklaijvazpereirahoekstra_codeverification/}, year = {2016}, date = {20160113}, journal = {Journal of Computational Physics}, volume = {310}, pages = {418439}, abstract = {This article discusses Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers that rely on face based finite volume discretizations for volumes of arbitrary shape. The study includes test cases with known analytical solutions (generated with the method of manufactured solutions) corresponding to laminar and turbulent flow, with the latter using eddyviscosity turbulence models. The procedure to perform Code Verification based on grid refinement studies is discussed and the requirements for its correct application are illustrated in a simple onedimensional problem. It is shown that geometrically similar grids are recommended for proper Code Verification and so the data should not have scatter making the use of least square fits unnecessary. Results show that it may be advantageous to determine the extrapolated error to cell size/time step zero instead of assuming that it is zero, especially when it is hard to determine the asymptotic order of grid convergence. In the RANS examples, several of the features of the ReFRESCO solver are checked including the effects of the available turbulence models in the convergence properties of the code. It is shown that it is required to account for nonorthogonality effects in the discretization of the diffusion terms and that the turbulence quantities transport equations can deteriorate the order of grid convergence of mean flow quantities.}, keywords = {}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } This article discusses Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers that rely on face based finite volume discretizations for volumes of arbitrary shape. The study includes test cases with known analytical solutions (generated with the method of manufactured solutions) corresponding to laminar and turbulent flow, with the latter using eddyviscosity turbulence models. The procedure to perform Code Verification based on grid refinement studies is discussed and the requirements for its correct application are illustrated in a simple onedimensional problem. It is shown that geometrically similar grids are recommended for proper Code Verification and so the data should not have scatter making the use of least square fits unnecessary. Results show that it may be advantageous to determine the extrapolated error to cell size/time step zero instead of assuming that it is zero, especially when it is hard to determine the asymptotic order of grid convergence. In the RANS examples, several of the features of the ReFRESCO solver are checked including the effects of the available turbulence models in the convergence properties of the code. It is shown that it is required to account for nonorthogonality effects in the discretization of the diffusion terms and that the turbulence quantities transport equations can deteriorate the order of grid convergence of mean flow quantities. 
2.  Eca, Luis; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin: CODE VERIFICATION OF REFRESCO WITH A STATISTICALLY PERIODIC MANUFACTURED SOLUTION. OMAE2014 San Francisco, California, 2014. (Type: Conference  Abstract  Links  BibTeX) @conference{2014_OMAE23258_MMS+Unsteady_Eca_et_al, title = {CODE VERIFICATION OF REFRESCO WITH A STATISTICALLY PERIODIC MANUFACTURED SOLUTION}, author = {Luis Eca and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2014_omae23258_mmsunsteady_eca_et_al/}, year = {2014}, date = {20140606}, address = {San Francisco, California}, organization = {OMAE2014}, abstract = {This paper presents a Code Verification study performed with the unsteady ensembleaveraged NavierStokes (URANS) solver ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions. The study uses a statistically periodic manufactured solution including the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras turbulence model. Three main aspects of the numerical calculations of unsteady flows are addressed in this study: iterative errors; discretization errors (space and time) and the determination of the observed order of (space and time) convergence. The availability of an exact solution allows the determination of the numerical error and so the effects of iterative and discretization errors can be addressed. The paper presents grid and time refinement studies with different (iterative) convergence criteria and demonstrates that grid and time resolution are strongly connected when attempts are made to minimize the numerical uncertainty in the calculation of unsteady flows. The paper also addresses error estimation based on power series expansions in the calculation of unsteady (space and time dependent) flows. Simultaneous grid and time refinement is compared to grid refinement with fixed time step and time refinement with fixed grid. The advantages and limitations of both options are discussed in the context of Code Verification (error evaluation) and Solution Verification (error estimation).}, keywords = {}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {conference} } This paper presents a Code Verification study performed with the unsteady ensembleaveraged NavierStokes (URANS) solver ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions. The study uses a statistically periodic manufactured solution including the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras turbulence model. Three main aspects of the numerical calculations of unsteady flows are addressed in this study: iterative errors; discretization errors (space and time) and the determination of the observed order of (space and time) convergence. The availability of an exact solution allows the determination of the numerical error and so the effects of iterative and discretization errors can be addressed. The paper presents grid and time refinement studies with different (iterative) convergence criteria and demonstrates that grid and time resolution are strongly connected when attempts are made to minimize the numerical uncertainty in the calculation of unsteady flows. The paper also addresses error estimation based on power series expansions in the calculation of unsteady (space and time dependent) flows. Simultaneous grid and time refinement is compared to grid refinement with fixed time step and time refinement with fixed grid. The advantages and limitations of both options are discussed in the context of Code Verification (error evaluation) and Solution Verification (error estimation). 
3.  Eca, Luis; Pereira, Filipe; Vaz, Guilherme: Code Verification of ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions. Las Vegas, Nevada, 22.05.2013. (Type: Presentation  Abstract  Links  BibTeX) @misc{2013ASMEV&V2013_MMS_ReFRESCO, title = {Code Verification of ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions}, author = {Luis Eca and Filipe Pereira and Guilherme Vaz}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2013asmevv2013_mms_refresco/}, year = {2013}, date = {20130522}, address = {Las Vegas, Nevada}, organization = {ASME}, abstract = {•Development of a reliable CFD solver requires thourough Code Verification to guarantee the correctness of the code and to assess its grid and timestep convergence properties • Code Verification of a (U)RANS solver requires the use of the Method of the Manufactured Solutions to allow the evaluation of discretization errors}, keywords = {}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {presentation} } •Development of a reliable CFD solver requires thourough Code Verification to guarantee the correctness of the code and to assess its grid and timestep convergence properties • Code Verification of a (U)RANS solver requires the use of the Method of the Manufactured Solutions to allow the evaluation of discretization errors 
4.  Eca, Luis; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin: ASSESSING CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF RANS SOLVERS WITH MANUFACTURED SOLUTIONS. ECCOMAS Vienna, Austria, 2012. (Type: Conference  Abstract  Links  BibTeX) @conference{2012ECCOMAS_Eca_Vaz_Hoekstra, title = {ASSESSING CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF RANS SOLVERS WITH MANUFACTURED SOLUTIONS}, author = {Luis Eca and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra }, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2012eccomas_eca_vaz_hoekstra/}, year = {2012}, date = {20120910}, address = {Vienna, Austria}, organization = {ECCOMAS}, abstract = {This paper addresses the effects of eddyviscosity turbulence models  namely, the oneequation model of Spalart & Allmaras and the TNT version of the twoequation k  w model  on the convergence properties of RANS solvers. These effects are examined with Manufactured Solutions that mimic nearwall turbulent flows, allowing the evaluation of the discretization error of the numerical solutions (contributions of the iterative and roundoff errors being negligible). Grid refinement studies are performed with two completely different RANS solvers to determine the asymptotic order of convergence of the L1 and L2 norms of the discretization error of mean flow and turbulence quantities. Two types of exercises are performed: calculation of all transport equations with the manufactured eddyviscosity field (no influence of the turbulence model on the mean flow solution); calculation of all transport equations, i.e. continuity, momentum equations and transport equations of turbulence quantities. Furthermore, techniques with different orders of accuracy are tested in the discretization of the convective terms of the turbulence quantities transport equations to assess its impact on the convergence properties of the mean flow quantities. The selected examples show that the solution of the turbulence quantities transport equations may disturb the expected convergence properties of the discretization error of the mean flow quantities.}, keywords = {}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {conference} } This paper addresses the effects of eddyviscosity turbulence models  namely, the oneequation model of Spalart & Allmaras and the TNT version of the twoequation k  w model  on the convergence properties of RANS solvers. These effects are examined with Manufactured Solutions that mimic nearwall turbulent flows, allowing the evaluation of the discretization error of the numerical solutions (contributions of the iterative and roundoff errors being negligible). Grid refinement studies are performed with two completely different RANS solvers to determine the asymptotic order of convergence of the L1 and L2 norms of the discretization error of mean flow and turbulence quantities. Two types of exercises are performed: calculation of all transport equations with the manufactured eddyviscosity field (no influence of the turbulence model on the mean flow solution); calculation of all transport equations, i.e. continuity, momentum equations and transport equations of turbulence quantities. Furthermore, techniques with different orders of accuracy are tested in the discretization of the convective terms of the turbulence quantities transport equations to assess its impact on the convergence properties of the mean flow quantities. The selected examples show that the solution of the turbulence quantities transport equations may disturb the expected convergence properties of the discretization error of the mean flow quantities. 
5.  Eca, Luis; Hoekstra, Martin; Vaz, Guilherme: On the use of Method of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of RANS solvers based on Eddyviscosity Models. 02.05.2012. (Type: Presentation  Abstract  Links  BibTeX) @misc{2012ASMEV&V6140_Eca, title = {On the use of Method of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of RANS solvers based on Eddyviscosity Models}, author = {Luis Eca and Martin Hoekstra and Guilherme Vaz}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2012asmevv6140_ecahoekstravazmmsrans/}, year = {2012}, date = {20120502}, abstract = {This presentation discusses the use of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers. In this exercise we will focus on timeaveraged (statistically steady), incompressible flows. Recently, we have developed several Manufactured Solutions (MS) that mimic a nearwall turbulent flow. The proposed analytical functions cover the mean flow quantities and the dependent variables of several eddyviscosity turbulence models. Namely, the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras and Menter oneequations models, k^(1/2) L from the one (SKL) and twoequation (KSKL) models proposed by Menter, the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency included in twoequation kw models. The turbulence quantities are defined from “automatic wall functions” and so they are supposed to reproduce the expected behaviour of these variables. All flow fields satisfy mass conservation, i.e. mean velocity fields are divergence free. We address three types of exercises: 1. Calculation of the continuity and momentum equations with a manufactured eddyviscosity field. 2. Calculation of the turbulence quantities transport equations with the manufactured mean flow field. 3. Calculation of the complete system of equations. Two main topics are discussed: The effect of the turbulence model on the convergence properties of the RANS solver. The difficulties imposed to the Method of Manufactured Solutions by the fact that physically all turbulence quantities must remain positive.}, keywords = {}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {presentation} } This presentation discusses the use of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers. In this exercise we will focus on timeaveraged (statistically steady), incompressible flows. Recently, we have developed several Manufactured Solutions (MS) that mimic a nearwall turbulent flow. The proposed analytical functions cover the mean flow quantities and the dependent variables of several eddyviscosity turbulence models. Namely, the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras and Menter oneequations models, k^(1/2) L from the one (SKL) and twoequation (KSKL) models proposed by Menter, the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency included in twoequation kw models. The turbulence quantities are defined from “automatic wall functions” and so they are supposed to reproduce the expected behaviour of these variables. All flow fields satisfy mass conservation, i.e. mean velocity fields are divergence free. We address three types of exercises: 1. Calculation of the continuity and momentum equations with a manufactured eddyviscosity field. 2. Calculation of the turbulence quantities transport equations with the manufactured mean flow field. 3. Calculation of the complete system of equations. Two main topics are discussed: The effect of the turbulence model on the convergence properties of the RANS solver. The difficulties imposed to the Method of Manufactured Solutions by the fact that physically all turbulence quantities must remain positive. 
2016 

Eca, Luis; Klaij, Christiaan; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin; Pereira, Filipe On code verification of RANS solvers Journal Article Journal of Computational Physics, 310 , pp. 418439, 2016. Abstract  Links  BibTeX  Tags: Code Verification, Manufactured solutions, Numerical error, Order of grid convergence, RANS @article{2016JCPEcaKlaijVazPereiraHoekstra, title = {On code verification of RANS solvers}, author = {Luis Eca and Christiaan Klaij and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra and Filipe Pereira}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2016jcpecaklaijvazpereirahoekstra_codeverification/}, year = {2016}, date = {20160113}, journal = {Journal of Computational Physics}, volume = {310}, pages = {418439}, abstract = {This article discusses Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers that rely on face based finite volume discretizations for volumes of arbitrary shape. The study includes test cases with known analytical solutions (generated with the method of manufactured solutions) corresponding to laminar and turbulent flow, with the latter using eddyviscosity turbulence models. The procedure to perform Code Verification based on grid refinement studies is discussed and the requirements for its correct application are illustrated in a simple onedimensional problem. It is shown that geometrically similar grids are recommended for proper Code Verification and so the data should not have scatter making the use of least square fits unnecessary. Results show that it may be advantageous to determine the extrapolated error to cell size/time step zero instead of assuming that it is zero, especially when it is hard to determine the asymptotic order of grid convergence. In the RANS examples, several of the features of the ReFRESCO solver are checked including the effects of the available turbulence models in the convergence properties of the code. It is shown that it is required to account for nonorthogonality effects in the discretization of the diffusion terms and that the turbulence quantities transport equations can deteriorate the order of grid convergence of mean flow quantities.}, keywords = {Code Verification, Manufactured solutions, Numerical error, Order of grid convergence, RANS}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {article} } This article discusses Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers that rely on face based finite volume discretizations for volumes of arbitrary shape. The study includes test cases with known analytical solutions (generated with the method of manufactured solutions) corresponding to laminar and turbulent flow, with the latter using eddyviscosity turbulence models. The procedure to perform Code Verification based on grid refinement studies is discussed and the requirements for its correct application are illustrated in a simple onedimensional problem. It is shown that geometrically similar grids are recommended for proper Code Verification and so the data should not have scatter making the use of least square fits unnecessary. Results show that it may be advantageous to determine the extrapolated error to cell size/time step zero instead of assuming that it is zero, especially when it is hard to determine the asymptotic order of grid convergence. In the RANS examples, several of the features of the ReFRESCO solver are checked including the effects of the available turbulence models in the convergence properties of the code. It is shown that it is required to account for nonorthogonality effects in the discretization of the diffusion terms and that the turbulence quantities transport equations can deteriorate the order of grid convergence of mean flow quantities.  
2014 

Eca, Luis; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin CODE VERIFICATION OF REFRESCO WITH A STATISTICALLY PERIODIC MANUFACTURED SOLUTION Conference OMAE2014 San Francisco, California, 2014. Abstract  Links  BibTeX  Tags: Code Verification, Manufactured solutions, ReFRESCO @conference{2014_OMAE23258_MMS+Unsteady_Eca_et_al, title = {CODE VERIFICATION OF REFRESCO WITH A STATISTICALLY PERIODIC MANUFACTURED SOLUTION}, author = {Luis Eca and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2014_omae23258_mmsunsteady_eca_et_al/}, year = {2014}, date = {20140606}, address = {San Francisco, California}, organization = {OMAE2014}, abstract = {This paper presents a Code Verification study performed with the unsteady ensembleaveraged NavierStokes (URANS) solver ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions. The study uses a statistically periodic manufactured solution including the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras turbulence model. Three main aspects of the numerical calculations of unsteady flows are addressed in this study: iterative errors; discretization errors (space and time) and the determination of the observed order of (space and time) convergence. The availability of an exact solution allows the determination of the numerical error and so the effects of iterative and discretization errors can be addressed. The paper presents grid and time refinement studies with different (iterative) convergence criteria and demonstrates that grid and time resolution are strongly connected when attempts are made to minimize the numerical uncertainty in the calculation of unsteady flows. The paper also addresses error estimation based on power series expansions in the calculation of unsteady (space and time dependent) flows. Simultaneous grid and time refinement is compared to grid refinement with fixed time step and time refinement with fixed grid. The advantages and limitations of both options are discussed in the context of Code Verification (error evaluation) and Solution Verification (error estimation).}, keywords = {Code Verification, Manufactured solutions, ReFRESCO}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {conference} } This paper presents a Code Verification study performed with the unsteady ensembleaveraged NavierStokes (URANS) solver ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions. The study uses a statistically periodic manufactured solution including the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras turbulence model. Three main aspects of the numerical calculations of unsteady flows are addressed in this study: iterative errors; discretization errors (space and time) and the determination of the observed order of (space and time) convergence. The availability of an exact solution allows the determination of the numerical error and so the effects of iterative and discretization errors can be addressed. The paper presents grid and time refinement studies with different (iterative) convergence criteria and demonstrates that grid and time resolution are strongly connected when attempts are made to minimize the numerical uncertainty in the calculation of unsteady flows. The paper also addresses error estimation based on power series expansions in the calculation of unsteady (space and time dependent) flows. Simultaneous grid and time refinement is compared to grid refinement with fixed time step and time refinement with fixed grid. The advantages and limitations of both options are discussed in the context of Code Verification (error evaluation) and Solution Verification (error estimation).  
2013 

Eca, Luis; Pereira, Filipe; Vaz, Guilherme Code Verification of ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions Presentation Las Vegas, Nevada, 22.05.2013. Abstract  Links  BibTeX  Tags: Manufactured solutions, Nonorthogonality, ReFRESCO, verification and validation @misc{2013ASMEV&V2013_MMS_ReFRESCO, title = {Code Verification of ReFRESCO using the Method of Manufactured Solutions}, author = {Luis Eca and Filipe Pereira and Guilherme Vaz}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2013asmevv2013_mms_refresco/}, year = {2013}, date = {20130522}, address = {Las Vegas, Nevada}, organization = {ASME}, abstract = {•Development of a reliable CFD solver requires thourough Code Verification to guarantee the correctness of the code and to assess its grid and timestep convergence properties • Code Verification of a (U)RANS solver requires the use of the Method of the Manufactured Solutions to allow the evaluation of discretization errors}, keywords = {Manufactured solutions, Nonorthogonality, ReFRESCO, verification and validation}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {presentation} } •Development of a reliable CFD solver requires thourough Code Verification to guarantee the correctness of the code and to assess its grid and timestep convergence properties • Code Verification of a (U)RANS solver requires the use of the Method of the Manufactured Solutions to allow the evaluation of discretization errors  
2012 

Eca, Luis; Vaz, Guilherme; Hoekstra, Martin ASSESSING CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF RANS SOLVERS WITH MANUFACTURED SOLUTIONS Conference ECCOMAS Vienna, Austria, 2012. Abstract  Links  BibTeX  Tags: convergence properties, Manufactured solutions, Numerical error, RANS solvers @conference{2012ECCOMAS_Eca_Vaz_Hoekstra, title = {ASSESSING CONVERGENCE PROPERTIES OF RANS SOLVERS WITH MANUFACTURED SOLUTIONS}, author = {Luis Eca and Guilherme Vaz and Martin Hoekstra }, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2012eccomas_eca_vaz_hoekstra/}, year = {2012}, date = {20120910}, address = {Vienna, Austria}, organization = {ECCOMAS}, abstract = {This paper addresses the effects of eddyviscosity turbulence models  namely, the oneequation model of Spalart & Allmaras and the TNT version of the twoequation k  w model  on the convergence properties of RANS solvers. These effects are examined with Manufactured Solutions that mimic nearwall turbulent flows, allowing the evaluation of the discretization error of the numerical solutions (contributions of the iterative and roundoff errors being negligible). Grid refinement studies are performed with two completely different RANS solvers to determine the asymptotic order of convergence of the L1 and L2 norms of the discretization error of mean flow and turbulence quantities. Two types of exercises are performed: calculation of all transport equations with the manufactured eddyviscosity field (no influence of the turbulence model on the mean flow solution); calculation of all transport equations, i.e. continuity, momentum equations and transport equations of turbulence quantities. Furthermore, techniques with different orders of accuracy are tested in the discretization of the convective terms of the turbulence quantities transport equations to assess its impact on the convergence properties of the mean flow quantities. The selected examples show that the solution of the turbulence quantities transport equations may disturb the expected convergence properties of the discretization error of the mean flow quantities.}, keywords = {convergence properties, Manufactured solutions, Numerical error, RANS solvers}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {conference} } This paper addresses the effects of eddyviscosity turbulence models  namely, the oneequation model of Spalart & Allmaras and the TNT version of the twoequation k  w model  on the convergence properties of RANS solvers. These effects are examined with Manufactured Solutions that mimic nearwall turbulent flows, allowing the evaluation of the discretization error of the numerical solutions (contributions of the iterative and roundoff errors being negligible). Grid refinement studies are performed with two completely different RANS solvers to determine the asymptotic order of convergence of the L1 and L2 norms of the discretization error of mean flow and turbulence quantities. Two types of exercises are performed: calculation of all transport equations with the manufactured eddyviscosity field (no influence of the turbulence model on the mean flow solution); calculation of all transport equations, i.e. continuity, momentum equations and transport equations of turbulence quantities. Furthermore, techniques with different orders of accuracy are tested in the discretization of the convective terms of the turbulence quantities transport equations to assess its impact on the convergence properties of the mean flow quantities. The selected examples show that the solution of the turbulence quantities transport equations may disturb the expected convergence properties of the discretization error of the mean flow quantities.  
Eca, Luis; Hoekstra, Martin; Vaz, Guilherme On the use of Method of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of RANS solvers based on Eddyviscosity Models Presentation 02.05.2012. Abstract  Links  BibTeX  Tags: Code Verification, Eddyviscosity, Manufactured solutions, RANS solvers @misc{2012ASMEV&V6140_Eca, title = {On the use of Method of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of RANS solvers based on Eddyviscosity Models}, author = {Luis Eca and Martin Hoekstra and Guilherme Vaz}, url = {http://www.refresco.org/download/2012asmevv6140_ecahoekstravazmmsrans/}, year = {2012}, date = {20120502}, abstract = {This presentation discusses the use of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers. In this exercise we will focus on timeaveraged (statistically steady), incompressible flows. Recently, we have developed several Manufactured Solutions (MS) that mimic a nearwall turbulent flow. The proposed analytical functions cover the mean flow quantities and the dependent variables of several eddyviscosity turbulence models. Namely, the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras and Menter oneequations models, k^(1/2) L from the one (SKL) and twoequation (KSKL) models proposed by Menter, the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency included in twoequation kw models. The turbulence quantities are defined from “automatic wall functions” and so they are supposed to reproduce the expected behaviour of these variables. All flow fields satisfy mass conservation, i.e. mean velocity fields are divergence free. We address three types of exercises: 1. Calculation of the continuity and momentum equations with a manufactured eddyviscosity field. 2. Calculation of the turbulence quantities transport equations with the manufactured mean flow field. 3. Calculation of the complete system of equations. Two main topics are discussed: The effect of the turbulence model on the convergence properties of the RANS solver. The difficulties imposed to the Method of Manufactured Solutions by the fact that physically all turbulence quantities must remain positive.}, keywords = {Code Verification, Eddyviscosity, Manufactured solutions, RANS solvers}, pubstate = {published}, tppubtype = {presentation} } This presentation discusses the use of Manufactured Solutions for Code Verification of ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers. In this exercise we will focus on timeaveraged (statistically steady), incompressible flows. Recently, we have developed several Manufactured Solutions (MS) that mimic a nearwall turbulent flow. The proposed analytical functions cover the mean flow quantities and the dependent variables of several eddyviscosity turbulence models. Namely, the undamped eddyviscosity of the Spalart & Allmaras and Menter oneequations models, k^(1/2) L from the one (SKL) and twoequation (KSKL) models proposed by Menter, the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency included in twoequation kw models. The turbulence quantities are defined from “automatic wall functions” and so they are supposed to reproduce the expected behaviour of these variables. All flow fields satisfy mass conservation, i.e. mean velocity fields are divergence free. We address three types of exercises: 1. Calculation of the continuity and momentum equations with a manufactured eddyviscosity field. 2. Calculation of the turbulence quantities transport equations with the manufactured mean flow field. 3. Calculation of the complete system of equations. Two main topics are discussed: The effect of the turbulence model on the convergence properties of the RANS solver. The difficulties imposed to the Method of Manufactured Solutions by the fact that physically all turbulence quantities must remain positive. 